GarudJain1997embeddness


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bibtex

en

@article{GarudJain1997embeddness
 title={{The Embeddedness of Technological Systems}},
 author={Garud, R. and Jain, S.},
 journal={Working Paper Series},
 year={1997},
 publisher={Stern School of Business, New York University},
 location={http://hdl.handle.net/2451/14189},
 language={English}
}

format for references


abstract



memo

ポイントは後ろの方のSummery節とDiscussion 章


このペーパー自体はTCP/IPの普及プロセスを事例に、ベンダーとユーザーが協働して標準化プロセスを進めていく様子を分析。
vendors and users jointly are actively attempting to shape the standard-setting process. These standards, in turn shape activities in the technical environment of product markets, aleit in a loosely coupled fasion.

技術進化の早いITCネットワークでは、美しいde-jureを待っている暇など無く、汚くてもとにかく早く実装して市場投入することが重要。
In certain arenas such as network management and high-speed networking , various vendor groups are cooperating to come up with uick and dirty versions of interoperablity standards rather than wait for standards bodies to come out with the "official" versions. Thus industry wisdom seems to sugest, "Innovate now; clean up afterward." Often, the defacto standard may b ebased on an inferior slution that can require additional rework to conform when a dejure standard comes along. However, proprietary products an make-do standards can sometimes pose a sufficient therat to "official" standards.

アプリケーションレイヤでは、ドミナントデザインなんて成立しない。相互可用性を成立させるための手法群であるドミナントソリューションのみが存在する。
The institutional environment, as defined by the standards available at any given point in time, does not completely define activities in the technical environment. In this scenario, there are no dominant designs but only dominant solutions that are forged with the availability of patchwork devices that can "glue" disparate systems together allowing users to mix and match components.

先行研究のまとめ


Constant(1980=constant1980origins) demonstrates how the institutional environment of standards (one that he lavels as "traditions of testability") powerfully influence product development activity in the technical environment (see also Garud & Rappa, 1994=GarudRappa1994socio).

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@book{constant1980origins,
 title={{The origins of the turbojet revolution}},
 author={Constant, E.W.},
 isbn={080182222X},
 year={1980},
 publisher={Johns Hopkins University Press Baltimore, MD}
}

downloaded

@article{GarudRappa1994socio,
 title={{A socio-cognitive model of technology evolution: The case of cochlear implants}},
 author={Garud, R. and Rappa, M.A.},
 journal={Organization Science},
 volume={5},
 number={3},
 pages={344--362},
 issn={1047-7039},
 year={1994},
 publisher={JSTOR}
}

compativility standards are a key institutional facet of most inoframtion technology based industries (Garud & Kumaraswamy, 1995=GarudKumaraswamy1993changing). In these industries, common standards provide users ande vendors with a platform to use and innovate upon. However, once set, these standards "lock in " users and venders to particulr trajectories, and at the extreame, prevent the technology from migrating to new functionalities (David, 1985=David1985clio; Arthur, 1988=Arthur1988self: Farell & Saloner, 1986=FarrellSaloner1986installed).

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@article{GarudKumaraswamy1993changing,
 title={{Changing competitive dynamics in network industries: An exploration of Sun Microsystems' open systems strategy}},
 author={Garud, R. and Kumaraswamy, A.},
 journal={Strategic Management Journal},
 volume={14},
 number={5},
 pages={351--369},
 issn={1097-0266},
 year={1993},
 publisher={Wiley Online Library}
}

downloaded

David1985clio
@article{David1985clio,
 title={{Clio and the Economics of QWERTY}},
 author={David, P.A.},
 journal={The American economic review},
 volume={75},
 number={2},
 pages={332--337},
 issn={0002-8282},
 year={1985}
}

to be rent from Mita

@article{Arthur1988self,
 title={{Self-Reinforcing Mechanisms in Economics}},
 author={ARTHUR, W.B.},
 booktitle={The economy as an evolving complex system : the proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, held September, 1987 in Santa Fe, New Mexico},
 editor={Philip W. Anderson and Kenneth J. Arrow and David Pines}
 pages={9--31},
 isbn={0201156857},
 year={1988},
 publisher={Addison-Wesley}
}

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@article{FarrellSaloner1986installed,
 title={{Installed base and compatibility: Innovation, product preannouncements, and predation}},
 author={Farrell, J. and Saloner, G.},
 journal={The American Economic Review},
 volume={76},
 number={5},
 pages={940--955},
 issn={0002-8282},
 year={1986},
 publisher={JSTOR}
}

How can tehcnolgies benefit from the coordination that institutional standards can provide while overcoming their constraning effects? We suggest that this can happen when the institutional environment of compativility standards "just" embeds the technical environment of product markets. By "just" embedded we mean that standards and the processes associated with them provide the coordination required to carry out technical activities in the present, and, at the same time, not constrain the migration of the technology to new functionalities in the future.